Steely Dan’s “Aja”: Eight Minutes of Genius

Walter Becker

Editor’s note:  This was the first of an occasional series, from a few years back, where we “get under the hood” of some great records to see what makes them run so well.  It seemed a good time to re-visit it. Scott Freiman is our uniquely qualified guide, having built a worldwide following doing the same for Beatle albums.  


Steely Dan is known for jazz-influenced arrangements, quirky lyrics, and pristine production.  Even non-fans recognize the brilliance of their 1977 album, Aja. For many music lovers, it’s their first choice for a late-night listen accompanied by iced Manhattans. Audiophiles use it to audition high-end stereo speakers. Jazz purists discuss its intricacies with classic rock veterans.

Donald Fagen and Walter Becker had formed Steely Dan as a band in the early seventies, serving as the group’s principal songwriters. They combined their love of rhythm and blues with their deep appreciation of jazz. They weren’t a rock band with horns or a jazz fusion band. Steely Dan was something different and unique — a rock band that used jazz harmonies.

By the time of Aja, Fagen and Becker were the only permanent band members (although original guitarist Denny Dias often appeared as a guest). They supplemented their instruments with the best session players in New York and Los Angeles. Their jazz-rock sound, with hardly a traditional major or minor chord in sight, was recorded with the utmost care thanks to the work of producer Gary Katz and engineer Roger Nichols.

Although Aja generated three singles – “Peg,” “Deacon Blues,” and “Josie” — many consider the title track one of the greatest songs of Steely Dan’s long career. Clocking in at eight minutes, “Aja” was the longest song the Dan recorded, and the most intricate. Its sophisticated structure makes it more like a suite than a single song. In fact, Becker and Fagen created it by combining several of their unfinished songs. In addition to Becker’s guitar and Fagen’s keyboards, the song featured a who’s who of great jazz musicians — Steve Gadd on drums, Wayne Shorter on sax, Larry Carlton on guitar, and Joe Sample on keys. The song also featured a guest appearance by the Eagles’ Timothy B. Schmit on background vocals.

There are Web sites devoted to interpreting Steely Dan’s lyrics, and “Aja” is no exception. According to Fagen, it was based on a Korean woman named Aja, although he also said that it’s about the “tranquility that can come of a quiet relationship with a beautiful woman.” But, you don’t need to understand the lyrics to come along for this exotic journey.

We begin with a four bar introduction – Michael Omartian‘s jazz piano with some light rides on the cymbals. Electric piano and guitar duet across the stereo spectrum. Fagen sings a three line verse about the people “up on the hill” who “don’t stare” because “they just don’t care” (0:17).  Are they the people who don’t approve of the singer’s relationship/infatuation with Aja? Or are they too caught up in their own lives to even notice her? Whoever they are, Becker/Fagen insert a few instrumental bars (including some marimba from percussionist Victor Feldman) to separate them from the singer (0:26). Already, the structure of the song is unlike any other song by Steely Dan — or any other group for that matter. We’re drawn into the mystery.

The dispassionate people of the verse are offset by the chorus’ “Chinese music in the banyan trees” (0:38). Yet, there’s really nothing Eastern about the percussion, which provides a Latin-tinged rhythm. Stacked vocals over jazz cluster chords accompany the first mention of “Aja.” On the word “you”, the song seems to suspend in time.

A brief electric piano arpeggio (1:07) returns us to another instrumental interlude and a second verse. Again, the arrangement contrasts the “hill people” of the verse with the heroine of the chorus. “Throw out the hardware,” sings Fagen. “Let’s do it right.” Things with Aja are definitely heating up!

We now enter an extended instrumental section that is like a song unto itself with intros, verses, and solo sections. It begins with an eight-bar introduction and two “verses” featuring a melody played by the marimba (2:16). The rhythm is driven by the percussion and not the drums. It feels as if we are visiting a tropical island. About halfway through the section (3:08), a Denny Dias guitar solo makes us lose all sense of rhythm. We don’t know where we are in the song or what will happen next. Just when we’ve lost our place, the marimba section of the instrumental returns with Dias soloing over top (3:30). Is Aja Chinese, Latin, or Hawaiian? And why is Fagen blowing a police whistle? Before we have time to ponder these questions, the “guitar out of time” section returns (4:13).

One might expect the verse to return at this point, but the Dan have other plans. In place of the verse, we get a great eight bar drums/saxophone solo courtesy of Gadd and Shorter (4:42). They solo while the rest of the band plays a single syncopated chord. Another interlude (4:58) where the solo appears to be winding down. But, Shorter and Gadd aren’t finished yet. They perform a second eight bar solo (5:14) followed by another interlude.

Finally, the tranquil mood of the introduction returns (5:48). It brings us back to a familiar place. We get a final verse about the people on the hill. This time Fagen sings of “angular banjos” (Is he comparing Aja to a banjo?  And why is it “angular?”).  The song ends with a long fade out (6:57), featuring a spectacular 28+ bar drum solo by Gadd over repeated chords by the rest of the band punctuated by Fagen’s synthesizer. According to Gadd, he nailed the solo on only the second take.

“Aja” is a masterpiece that sucks you into its magical world. Each musician’s performance is perfect for the song with not a single note out of place. In fact, jazz critics routinely rate both Gadd’s and Shorter’s playing on this song as highlights of their respective careers. The complex song structure takes us on a journey much like the singer’s journey from the land of “the hill” to the exotic world of Aja. “Aja” is the high point of an album filled with high points, an album that is itself a high point of Steely Dan’s career.

Scott Freiman

Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images

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54 comments on “Steely Dan’s “Aja”: Eight Minutes of Genius

  1. Scott Smith

    Steve Gadd’s drumming throughout Aja is incredible. As good as it gets.

    • For a brief 3 months in the Spring of 1977, I worked at SIR(Studio Instrument Rentals) in Hollywood and was the head of the Drum Department there. I delivered the red sparkle Ludwig set to thisSteely Dan/ Aja session and had the opportunity to hang out at length with Gadd while we set up in preparation for the take at The Producer’s Workshop located at the Crossroads of the World on Sunset Blvd. Just as they were getting ready to record, in walks Sir George Martin…who helped them in the recording of this song. I hung around while they did a 1st take and then a 2nd take which was the one you here on the record

  2. Paul Flattery

    Brilliant analysis.
    I read it as I listened to the track.
    It’s a great article on what is a genuine masterpiece.
    But so much of their work is.
    Steely Dan is a truly unique band in all of rock n roll.

  3. “Are they the people who don’t approve of the singer’s relationship/infatuation with Aja? Or are they too caught up in their own lives to even notice her?”
    I’d say they are non judgmental people who don’t stare because there’s nothing to stare at. At he bottom of the hill, in town, I imagine things are different.
    As for all of the different influences and references (Asian, Latino, jazz, rock, etc), sounds like LA to me….Todo del en un lugar.

    But hey, we all see the world through the lens of our own experience.

  4. William Zahn

    Chuck Rainey’s work on this entire recording is outstanding. I can always hear when Chuck is playing on a project because it is outstanding and unique.

  5. David De Marse

    Pure genius ! My favorite band of all time. Their music is timeless…introduced my sons and their friends to SD and now they are hooked…especially their GF’s!

    And per the article…show me any band that sounds like or even comes close to SD. I hope to catch them on tour soon.

  6. Scott Gold

    Finally saw the Dan this summer!!! Have ALWAYS been a fan!! Most unique band ever!!!!

  7. Angular banjos refers to Asian string instruments like the shamisen or sanxian. Also, quite certain that the “dude ranch” refers to a brothel. And with a wee bit of online searching, you can very likely come across plenty more explanation of the song’s meaning directly from Misters Fagen and Becker.

  8. seriously… exactly which jazz critics rate this as the high point in Shorter’s career…?

    • Agreed. I grew up with and love Steely Dan, but to say this solo is the highlight of Shorter’s career is shortsighted if not insulting. Listen to his solo on Infant Eyes as just one example among many

      • In fairness, the article says “rate…as highlights”, not “are the high points”. As in “a highlight” (of many) not “the (only) highlight.”

        You can argue whether these performances belong on their respective highlight reels, but it’s not fair to claim the article said these were “THE high points” of their careers.

      • Maybe this recording sold more than any other of the many spectacular tracks Wayne Shorter graced?

      • This was actually the greatest solo that Wayne never played! To explain, here’s Michael Anderson:

        “So I picked up the phone and called Wayne. I had known him for years and loved his writing and playing. We chatted for a bit, and I said, ‘Listen, are you available to come into the Village Recorder and do an overdub for me this week in Studio A?’ That’s where we recorded all of our top acts.

        “Wayne asked me who the group was. I said, ‘I don’t remember. But you’re going to love the music.’ He said, ‘When? I said, ‘You tell me.’ He said, ‘How’s Friday at 1 p.m.?’ I said, ‘Great.’

        “So I walked down to the studio, Roger Nichols, Steely Dan’s engineer; Gary; Donald and Walter were in there. I said, ‘Wayne will be here on Friday at 1 p.m.’ That’s when someone cracked, ‘Yeah, sure he will.’ Gary jumped in and said, ‘Hey, Dick isn’t going to say Wayne is going to be here unless Wayne is going to be here.’

        “That Friday, I walked down to Studio A. Donald was dressed in a starched striped shirt—white with blue stripes—pretty spiffy compared to the T-shirts he customarily wore in the studio.

        “I introduced him around and then walked out. Wayne did his solos—six passes in all. He loved the music, and was gone in 35 minutes. The guys were sitting around watching, stunned. After he left, Donald and Walter spliced together the six passes, and that’s what you hear on the album. Donald and Walter couldn’t thank me enough.”


  9. Love Steely Dan. Their jazz sound reminded me of this scene…had to share it.

    • Such a great and succinct description of jazz. But not why it’s stupid, why it’s great!

  10. Craig Skinner

    Did I hear someone say “Chuck Rainey”?

  11. Im named after this song.

  12. Pete Wilson

    Great analysis Scott! And what detail… I’ve probably listened to this song several hundred times over the last nearly 40 years and never noticed the police whistle! 🙂

  13. Jeffrey Parsons

    The 2nd guitar solo (over the marimba) is Walter Becker, not Denny Dias.

  14. Larry Carlton’s work with the Dan just slays me! This, Kid Charlemagne. Effing awesomeness, pure and total.

  15. FYI, the lyrics quoted in the article are actually “Chinese music under banyan trees”. The Steely Dan website has all of the correct lyrics available. I would presume that “angular banjos” refer to kotos or other Asian traditional instruments, keeping with the Asian theme. Not too difficult. Otherwise an excellent analysis of this all-time favorite song.

    • jack jsonhon

      “Chinese music” was Gillespie’s nickname for bebop.

      • Mark Zutkoff

        I believe it was Louis Armstrong who denigrated bebop as “Chinese music”. Although a quick Internet search just revealed that Cab Calloway, perhaps quoting Armstrong, used the same derogatory term.

  16. Tom in Florida

    Great! But no mention of who played bass, truly the backbone of this masterpiece.

    • Tom in Florida

      Woops! Just saw BlogDog’s comment. Larry Carlton, of course!

      • Filthy McNasty

        Chuck Rainey played bass on all of the songs on Aja except Deacon Blues. Walter Becker played bass on that.

  17. Timothy Walker

    No mention of the bassist. Shame…

  18. billy long

    that great guitar solo on “Peg” is played by jay graydon…..who knew that?

  19. William Hansen

    I was working at Tower Records Tacoma when this album came out in 1977. If I had a nickel for every Aja LP we sold thru in-store play, I’d be a rich man.

  20. Kerry Stehlik

    Did I read Timothy B. Schmidt of the EAGLES? Tremendous music.

  21. When Mentioning “The Masterpieces” Off This Work…..”Black Cow” Cannot Be Denied:)

  22. Won’t you sign in stranger?

  23. Will Moore

    West of Hollywood is actually longer than Aja……and yes, Aja is the perfect album.

  24. B Halbrook

    This is their masterpiece….but there are many others from this best of all time band. Pure genius

  25. I always compare Aja to Rhapsody in Blue. As Gershwin melded classical with Jazz Music, Fagan and Becker fused Rock with Jazz. Both pieces are really Suites containing instrumentals to create the feel of hustle and bustle of everyday life and the relax bliss of escape.

    Aja is really a masterpiece.

  26. The ‘stick-tip-hit” at 4:55-5:01…
    Listen closely my friends , for a nugget of mere mortal-ism from our God-Lyke-Gadd ( I absolutely love this drummer!!) for at about 4:55 to 5:01 as he and Mr Shorter are weaving one of their musical solos you’ll hear –what sounds to me–, a stick-hit…where Steve’s drum stick tips must have crossed a millimeter too close, and a little “click” is heard.
    Now I’m not saying its wrong, or a destroyer of an otherwise perfect track ( a drumtrack Mr. Gadd did it TWO takes! 🙂 I think it gives it character! My most Favorite track from my most favorite band
    LOVE the YouTube videos by CHUCK RAINEY!! talking about how Becker and Fagen didn’t want any of that ‘snappin and popping” on the track—and how he oh-so-smooothy worked it in there :)… on Peg and many other tracks. His bass playing has always been an inspiration to me.
    WISH I could find a band to jam with that had a drummer like Gadd!!

  27. I still think it’s about heroin.
    SD lyrics are metaphor.
    Chase the dragon.

  28. Great descriptive and interpretation of the music and the lyrics meanings, My only observation is that the line about “…Angular banjos sound good to me…” is nothing more sinister or sexual than the narrators infatuation with Aja and Asia now includes an appreciation for Asian instruments and there interesting sound though calming effect, instruments such as: the Erhu, the Sanxian or the Hae Gum and the Shamisen.
    After all, the narrator claims, “..Up on the hill, they think I’m ok…or so they say,..” (obviously sarcasm?)
    “…Chinese music always sets me free…” which could mean his choice of ‘sounds’ are considered by the ‘trendy hill people’ a bit “out there” and unconventional (freakish) by Western standards or tastes. Pretty much the same may be implied of their consider opinion of choice of girlfriend the narrator has found solace with. I agree the song is sensual, seductive and mysterious conveying calming feelings, which is pretty much a feeling any one who has had,or has, an Asian girlfriend is likely to experience. Not all seduction needs to be blatant sexual innuendo if you are with the right woman.

  29. Mark Zutkoff

    Not a big deal, but “West of Hollywood” from Two Against Nature is actually the Dan’s longest released studio track at 8:21, whereas “Aja” clocks in at a “measly” 8 minutes. However, you could say that “Aja” was their longest song in their original 70s-80s releases, as opposed to the two reunion albums in the 90s and aughts.

  30. Michael Vande

    As I see it, Aja is a tone poem about a night in San Francisco. The hill, one of several in that city, is a vantage point looking down on a multicultural metropolis. The instrumental section depicts Chinese New Year in San Franciso’s Chinatown, and a long paper dragon wending it’s way through the streets,and the police whistle is a traffic cop signaling traffice to stop and let it through. Then, ithe musical narrative moves to a cable car, with Steve Gadd’s explosinve drumming describing the ascent up one of the hills, and the wavering instruments that follow describing the descent. At the end od he song, the return to the drum-driven ascent keeps going up & up, carriying the listener off into space, or fantasy, or someplace in their minds.
    I don’t know if I’m accurate in my analysis, but I go on that trip through Chinatown every time I hear it, and it’s a pleasant journey.

  31. Jon Vanhala

    Undeniable brilliance

    • Robert P Stephenson

      This was one of the first albums I recorded on my reel to reel off the local fm station’s Saturday night album special. Those were shining times!

  32. Retroporter

    AND the quality of the recording of Gadd’s solo makes this one of my favorite “demonstration” tracks. I still have a copy of the album on red vinyl from decades ago.

  33. Michael Vande

    Aja is what I call a tone poem, set in San Francisco. The instrumental interlude in the middle isw a musical depiction of a long paper dragon aimated by several people walking bent over under it making it’s way down a street in China Town during Chinese New Year, pausing to wait for the policeman’s whistle to stop traffic so it may continue on it’s way. The drum solos over the single chord depict a street car climbing one of the Frisco hills, and descending down the other side, only to run back up the next one. In the end,they repeat as the street care climbs up the hill and takes off into the night sky.
    The angular banjos referred to are shamisens, a Japanese stringed insturment somewhat similar in construction to a banjo, not Chinese but Asian to fit the setting Becker & Fagin invoke.

  34. Henry Smith

    A perfect description, Scott, of an otherwise undescribable masterpiece! Great insights and explanations, as always!

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